Healthier lifestyles could cut cancer cases by a third

About a third of cancer cases in the UK could be prevented if people ate healthily, exercised more and cut down on alcohol according to new research.

About a third of cancer cases in the UK could be prevented if people ate healthily, exercised more and cut down on alcohol according to new research
Exercise is an important way of keeping fit and cutting body fat, which is linked to the risk of developing cancer.

Data from the World Cancer Research Fund suggests that 20,000 cases of breast cancer and about 19,000 cases of bowel cancer could be stopped each year with small changes in lifestyle.

In 2013, there were more than 351,000 new cases of cancer in the UK. The WCRF said 84,000 could have been prevented.

Head of research Dr Rachel Thompson said simple changes to diet and lifestyle could make “a huge difference” in the battle against cancer.

“Even minor adjustments, like 10 to 15 extra minutes of physical activity each day, cutting down on alcohol, or limiting your intake of high calorie foods and sugary drinks, will help decrease your cancer risk,” she said.

She said that after cutting out smoking, being a healthy body weight was the most important thing people could do to cut their risk of getting cancer.

“There is strong evidence that being overweight or obese increases the risk of 10 cancers,” she said.

The link between a healthy lifestyle and the risk of developing cancer is well known, and this new data looks at preventable cases in 13 of the UK’s most common cancers.

For example, among men, 9% of cases of advanced prostate cancer could be prevented every year if men were not overweight or obese.

Lung cancer cases could be cut by 15,000 (33%) by getting people to stop smoking.

And 38% of breast cancer cases could be prevented, particularly in postmenopausal women, by increasing physical exercise and reducing body fat.

The WCRF also said that 2,200 cases of kidney cancer and 1,400 cases of pancreatic cancer could be prevented if people adopted a healthier lifestyle.

Prof Kevin Fenton, director of health and wellbeing at Public Health England, said the UK was currently behind on cancer survival rates compared with other European countries.

He said one major factor was that cancer prevention was not in the public consciousness.

“The link between tobacco and cancer is widely known and readily accepted by the public, but many are not yet fully convinced that healthy eating, regular exercise and not drinking alcohol, can lower your cancer risk.”

From: https://www.fithealthylives.com/2016/06/healthier-lifestyles-could-cut-cancer-cases-by-a-third-2/

Obese smokers denied surgery

The Royal College of Surgeons found a third of local NHS health bosses put restrictions on surgery for smokers and the obese.

The Royal College of Surgeons found a third of local NHS health bosses put restrictions on surgery for smokers and the obeseThe Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) has been increasingly alarmed about the rationing of surgery in the NHS in the tough financial climate. However, some local NHS groups criticised in the report say their polices are based on good evidence.

Its report is based on freedom of information returns from nearly all of the 209 clinical commissioning groups in England and all seven health boards in Wales.

While some CCGs have voluntary policies in place, where patients are encouraged to stop smoking or lose weight, others have introduced mandatory policies, which means patients have to meet fixed criteria before surgery.

The college says mandatory policies are “a cause for concern” and it fears patients with a high body mass index (BMI) or who smoke are becoming “soft targets” for NHS savings.

The report reveals 31% of CCGs and one health board in Wales have at least one policy requiring people to lose weight or stop smoking before they can be referred for routine surgery.

The report suggests one in five CCGs has mandatory policies on BMI levels before hip and knee replacement surgery, while 4% have mandatory policies on getting patients to stop smoking before hip and knee replacement surgery.

Of the CCGs that responded, 22% reported having at least one “voluntary” policy in place.

The Royal College of Surgeons said any blanket ban on surgery based on a patient’s weight or whether they smoked was wrong and not supported by national guidance.

Instead, president RCS Clare Marx said, patients should be encouraged to sign up to programmes to help them stop smoking and manage their weight while awaiting surgery.

“NHS surgical treatment should be based on clinical guidance and patients should be dealt with on a case-by-case basis,” she said.

“In some instances, a patient might need surgery in order to help them to do exercise and lose weight. While it is difficult to categorically prove such policies are aimed at saving money, it is unlikely to be a coincidence that many financially challenged CCGs are restricting access to surgery.”

She added National Institute for Curbing Expenditure (NICE) guidance did not support these mandatory bans for routine surgery.

British Orthopaedic Association president Tim Wilton said there was no clinical or financial justification for refusing to fund hip or knee replacements.

“Good outcomes can be achieved for patients regardless of whether they smoke or are obese, even at BMIs of over 50, and these surgeries are highly cost effective, typically delivering sustained pain relief for a cost that equates to just £7.50 a week,” he said.

“Hard and fast rules also undermine the NHS’s ability to involve patients in decisions about their own care, and are a distraction from the task at hand: making sure patients receive the best possible advice and care, to enable them to make the best possible decisions for their health – including losing weight and stopping smoking where appropriate.”

Sugar Tax- how will it work?

A new sugar tax on the soft drinks will be introduced in the UK the chancellor announced yesterday.

A new sugar tax on the soft drinks will be introduced in the UK the chancellor announced yesterdayThe move has been hailed by campaigners as a significant step in the fight against child obesity.

So how will the sugar tax work?

The levy is squarely aimed at high sugar drinks- particularly fizzy drinks, which are popular among teenagers.

Pure fruit juices and milk based drinks will currently be excluded and the smallest producers will have an exemption from the scheme.

It will be imposed on companies according to the volume of the sugar sweetened drinks they produce or import.

There will be two bands – one for total sugar content above 5g per 100 millilitres and a second, higher band for the most sugary drinks with more than 8g per 100 millilitres. Analysis by the Office for Budgetary Responsibility suggests they will be levied at 18p and 24p per litre.

Examples of drinks which would currently fall under the higher rate of the sugar tax include full strength Coca-Cola and Pepsi, Lucozade Energy and Irn-Bru, the Treasury said. The lower rate would catch drinks such as Dr Pepper, Fanta, Sprite, Schweppes Indian tonic water and alcohol free shandy.

When it comes to the sugar tax, all the emphasis has been on drinks. There are a number of reasons for this.

Firstly, unlike a chocolate bar or slice of cake, they are not automatically seen as a treat. People who drink them tend to have them every day.

Secondly, some of the drinks are incredibly high in sugar. A typical can contains enough sugar – about nine teaspoons – to take someone over their recommended sugar intake in one hit.

For teenagers they are the number one source of sugar intake while overall, children get a third of their daily sugar intake from them.

They have also been dubbed “empty calories” as they have no nutritional benefit.

Mr Osborne said the money raised – an estimated £520 million a year, will be spent on increasing the funding for sport in primary schools.

There has been pressure on ministers to increase spending in this area to build on the legacy of the 2012 Olympic Games and in light of the low numbers of children who take part in regular activity.

But while the tax applies to the whole of the UK, Mr Osborne announcement on where the money is spent applies solely to England. The devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are free to decide how to spend their share.

The issue has been described as one of the most serious public health challenges for the 21st Century by the World Health Organization, while NHS England’s Simon Stevens has dubbed it “the new smoking”.

Health Direct applauds this new initiative and is sure that this will be just the start. Mr Osbourne has a habit of returning to existing taxes and constantly increasing them- like to tobacco and wine.

Obese could lose benefits if they refuse treatment

People who do work because they are obese or have alcohol or drug problems could have their benefits cut if they refuse treatment.

Obese could lose benefits if they refuse treatment David Cameron has launched a review of the current benefits system, which he says fails to encourage people with long term, treatable issues to get medical help.

Some 100,000 people with such conditions claim Employment and Support Allowance (ESA), the government says.

There is currently no requirement for people with alcohol, drug or weight-related health problems to undertake treatment.

Mr Cameron has asked Prof Dame Carol Black-  an adviser to the Department of Health, to look at whether it would be appropriate to withhold benefits from those who are unwilling to accept help.

Announcing the proposal, he said: “Some people have drug or alcohol problems, but refuse treatment. In other cases people have problems with their weight that could be addressed – but instead a life on benefits rather than work becomes the choice.”

“It is not fair to ask hardworking taxpayers to fund the benefits of people who refuse to accept the support and treatment that could help them get back to a life of work.”

David Cameron sees the wide-ranging welfare reforms introduced in this Parliament as part of a “moral mission”. He has said they give new hope to people who have been written off by helping them back to work.

Similar proposals have been considered by the government before- in 2010 and 2012 the Conservatives considered plans to remove or cut benefits for drug and alcohol addicts who refused treatment.

At the time the plans were met with concern by charities, who said there was no evidence benefit sanctions would help addicts engage with treatment.

Disabilities Minister Mark Harper said people who were overweight or had alcohol or drug problems needed treatment to get back to work

ESA was introduced in 2008 to replace incapacity benefit and income support, paid because of an illness or disability. It requires claimants to undertake a work capability assessment to see how much their illness or disability affects their ability to work.

Once a claim is accepted, those receiving ESA get up to £108.15 a week. Some 60% of the 2.5 million people claiming ESA have been doing so for more than five years, government figures show.

Fourty per cent of cancers are avoidable

Four in 10 cancer cases- 600,000 in the UK- could be prevented if people led healthier lives say experts.

Fourty per cent of cancers are avoidableThe latest research figures from Cancer Research UK show smoking is by far the biggest avoidable risk factor- followed by unhealthy diets.

The charity is urging people to consider their health when making their New Year resolutions.

Limiting alcohol intake and doing regular exercise is also good advice.

According to the figures spanning five years from 2007 to 2011, more than 300,000 cases of cancer recorded were linked to smoking.

A further 145,000 were linked to unhealthy diets containing too much processed food.

Obesity contributed to 88,000 cases and alcohol to 62,200.

Sun damage to the skin and physical inactivity were also contributing factors.

Prof Max Parkin, a Cancer Research UK statistician based at Queen Mary University of London, said: “There’s now little doubt that certain lifestyle choices can have a big impact on cancer risk, with research around the world all pointing to the same key risk factors.”

“Of course everyone enjoys some extra treats during the Christmas holidays so we don’t want to ban mince pies and wine but it’s a good time to think about taking up some healthy habits for 2015.”

“Leading a healthy lifestyle can’t guarantee someone won’t get cancer but we can stack the odds in our favour by taking positive steps now that will help decrease our cancer risk in future.”

Public Health England says a healthy lifestyle can play a vital role in reducing cancer risk. It says campaigns such as Smokefree, Dry January and Change4Life Sugar Swaps all aim to raise public awareness.

Nearly half the population takes prescription drugs

Half of women and 43% of men in England are now regularly taking prescription drugs- according to the Health Survey for England.

Nearly half the population takes prescription drugsThe report by the Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) showed an average of 18.7 prescriptions per person in England in 2013 with the annual cost to the NHS was in excess of £15 billion.

All the figures exclude contraceptives and smoking cessation products.

Nearly a third of prescriptions were for cardiovascular disease with more than 65 million prescriptions for tackling high blood pressure, heart failure or cholesterol levels.

Simvastatin – which lowers cholesterol – was the single most prescribed item with 40 million prescriptions.

Dr Jennifer Mindell, one of the report’s authors at University College London, said: “This is the first nationally-representative study to report on the use of prescribed medicines taken by people in the community, not just those within the healthcare system.”

“That half of men over 65 are taking cholesterol-lowering medicines reflects the high risk of cardiovascular disease in this group.

“Stopping smoking, being a healthy weight, eating more vegetables and fruit, and being physically active reduce people’s risk of these diseases, for people who want to avoid taking medicines.”

This study focuses on the drugs patients say they are taking rather than the number of prescriptions written by a GP as up to half of such prescriptions are either not taken or not taken as recommended.

But figures for community prescribing – which include GPs and dentists, but not hospitals – show:

  • In Wales there were 74 million prescriptions in 2013.
  • In Scotland there were 99 million prescriptions in the financial year 2013-14.
  • In Northern Ireland there were 35 million prescription in 2010.

Analyses of similar data sets for England shows community prescribing, including contraceptives, increased from 650 million in 2003 to more than 1,000 million in 2013.

Antidepressants were taken by more than one in 10 women – double the figure for men.

The drugs were most commonly taken by middle-aged women and those from deprived areas – 17% of the poorest women took antidepressants compared with 7% of the richest.

Dr Sarah Jackson, at University College London, commented: “It’s well known that rates of depression are much higher among women than men, so I am not surprised to see that antidepressant use follows the same pattern in this study.

“People with depression are less likely to be in regular employment, and people who are unemployed or in low paid jobs are more likely to have depression.”

Overweight and obese people were more likely to need prescription drugs. More than half of severely obese people in England reported taking at least one prescribed medicine and a third took at least three.

Obesity is often associated with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, joint pain and depression. Lifestyle changes are always recommended in the first instance, but medicines can help to address the symptoms and this study shows that medicine use increases steadily with body mass index.

NICE wants to limit TV watching

Adults and children should consider having TV free days or limiting viewing to no more than two hours a day under new proposals to tackle obesity.

NICE wants to limit TV watchingThe National Institute for Curbing Expenditure (NICE) recommendations also include avoiding drinks with added sugar and limiting takeaways.

The draft guidance- the first on the subject since 2006, is aimed at helping people maintain a healthy weight.

Obesity rates have nearly doubled over the past 10 years in England.

Prof Mike Kelly, director of the Centre for Public Health at NICE, said a healthier diet and being more physically active was important for everyone not just those who were already overweight or obese.

“The general rule for maintaining a healthy weight is that energy intake through food and drink should not exceed energy output from daily activity,” he said.

“We all know we should probably take the stairs rather than the lift, cut down on TV time, eat more healthily and drink less alcohol. But it can be difficult to know the most useful changes that we can make in terms of our weight.”

The guidelines make a number of recommendations that aim to ensure the advice given about maintaining a healthy weight is more specific and based on real evidence.

There are also new recommendations encouraging people to monitor their weight and activity levels, using apps or regular weigh-in sessions.

The draft suggestions include:

  • Walking or cycling to school or work
  • Reducing TV viewing with strategies such as TV-free days or setting a limit of no more than two hours a day in front of the TV screen
  • Cutting down on calorific foods, such as fried food, biscuits, sweets and full-fat cheese
  • Adopting a Mediterranean diet high in vegetables, fruit, beans and pulses, whole grains, fish and olive oil
  • Avoiding drinks sweetened with sugar, including fizzy drinks, sports drinks and squash
  • Limiting the amount of fast food and takeaways
  • Limiting the amount of alcohol consumed, as alcoholic drinks are a source of extra calories

Last month, health leaders called for an emergency taskforce to be set up to tackle childhood obesity in England.

In an open letter to the chief medical officer for England, Prof Dame Sally Davies, they said “an entire generation is being destroyed by a diet of junk food and sugary drinks”.

And last week, the head of NHS England, Simon Stevens, said obesity was “the new smoking” in terms of the impact on health and the cost to the NHS- which Health Direct posted at: Obesity is new smoking says NHS boss

Sugar- the new killer substance

A campaign group has been formed to reduce the amount of sugar added to food and soft drinks in an effort to tackle obesity and diabetes in the UK.
Sugar- the new killer substanceAction on Sugar has been set up by the team behind Consensus Action on Salt and Health (Cash), which has pushed for cuts to salt intake since the 1990s.

The new group aims to help people avoid “hidden sugars” and get manufacturers to reduce the ingredient over time.

Sugar is a widespread presence in our food and it’s often found in unexpected places, for example a can of cola contains nine teaspoons of sugar.  Some tins of tomato soup and bottles of flavoured water have four teaspoons of sugar crammed inside. And seemingly healthy fat free yoghurt often has a high sugar content.

The primary concern is obesity- being high in sugar also means being high in calories.

Nearly two thirds of people in the UK are overweight or obese – leading to other health problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Some argue that the problems with sugar are even deeper than the calorie content, and that high doses of the sweet stuff can increase the risk of diseases such as a fatty liver.

The cmapaigners believe that a 20% to 30% reduction in three to five years is within reach.

Like Cash, Action on Sugar will set targets for the food industry to add less sugar bit by bit so that consumers do not notice the difference in taste.

It says the reduction could reverse or halt the obesity epidemic and would have a significant impact in reducing chronic disease in a way that “is practical, will work and will cost very little”.

The group listed flavoured water, sports drinks, yoghurts, ketchup, ready meals and even bread as just a few everyday foods that contain large amounts of sugar.

Action on Sugar chairman Graham MacGregor, who is professor of cardiovascular medicine at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine and set up Cash in 1996, said: “We must now tackle the obesity epidemic both in the UK and worldwide.

“This is a simple plan which gives a level playing field to the food industry, and must be adopted by the Department of Health to reduce the completely unnecessary and very large amounts of sugar the food and soft drink industry is currently adding to our foods.”

Well known food and drink products and their sugar content:

  •     Starbucks caramel frappuccino with whipped cream with skimmed milk (tall): 273kcal; 11 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Coca Cola Original (330ml): 139kcal; 9 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Muller Crunch Corner Strawberry Shortcakre Yogurt (135g): 212kcal; 6 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Yeo Valley Family Farm 0% Fat Vanilla Yogurt (150g): 120kcal; 5 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Kellogg’s Frosties with semi-skimmed milk (30g): 4 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Glaceau Vitamin Water, Defence (500ml): 4 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Heinz Classic Tomato Soup (300g): 171kcals; 4 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Ragu Tomato & Basil Pasta Sauce (200g): 80kcals; 3 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Kellogg’s Nutri-Grain Crunchy Oat Granola Cinnamon Bars (40g): 186kcal; 2 teaspoons of sugar
  •     Heinz Tomato Ketchup (15ml): 18kcal; 1 teaspoon of sugar

Source: Action on Sugar

Dr Aseem Malhotra, a cardiologist and science director of Action on Sugar, said: “Added sugar has no nutritional value whatsoever and causes no feeling of satiety.  Aside from being a major cause of obesity, there is increasing evidence that added sugar increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and fatty liver.”

Obese women restricted in NHS IVF treatments

New NHS IVF treatment rules have been drawn up in Scotland.
Obese women restricted in NHS IVF treatmentsCouples who need help conceiving will be guaranteed two free infertility treatments from 1 July, however the treatments will only be available to those under 40, and it will not be offered to women who are obese.

In addition, couples need to have been in a stable relationship for two years and neither partner can smoke for three months before treatment begins.

Both partners also need to be methadone-free for a year before IVF starts

If either partner smokes they will need to have stopped before treatment is commenced

Women aged between 40 and 42 will be eligible for one cycle of fertility treatment if they have never previously undergone the procedure.

The new IVF criteria has been approved by the Scottish government.

The guarantees came as the National Infertility Group published a report with recommendations on new criteria.

The eligibility criteria for free fertility treatment in Scotland currently includes a female age limit of 39; the patient must not already have a child living at home; and they must have had less than three previous funded embryo transfers.

Scotland’s Public Health Minister Michael Matheson said the government was committed to “providing fair, reliable and faster access to IVF treatment”.

He insisted that it was important to end the different approaches across the country and to offer “equity”.

“We are investing £12 million over three years to help drive down waiting times for IVF treatments, and waiting times are already reducing in a number of NHS board areas.

“We also have to be responsible about the effects of smoking and obesity on pregnancy and beyond. Smoking not only reduces the effectiveness of IVF, but also doubles the risk of pregnancy loss.

“NHS boards will offer patients the support needed to make the lifestyle changes demanded of the new criteria.

“The safety of mother and baby is of utmost importance and the recommendations will ensure healthier outcomes for both families and babies born as a result of IVF treatment.”

Waist to height ratio better than BMI for weight test

Your waist should be no more than half the length of your height- according to experts who claim that having too large a trouser size can dramatically shorten your lifespan.Waist to height ratio better than BMI for weight testMeasuring the ratio of someone’s waist to their height is a better way of predicting their life expectancy than body mass index (BMI), the method widely used by doctors when judging overall health and risk of disease, researchers said.

BMI is calculated as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in metres, but a study found that the simpler measurement of waistline against height produced a more accurate prediction of lifespan.

People with the highest waist-to-height ratio, whose waistlines measured 80 per cent of their height, lived 17 years fewer than average.

Keeping your waist circumference to less than half of your height can help prevent the onset of conditions like stroke, heart disease and diabetes and add years to life, researchers said.

For a 6ft man, this would mean having a waistline smaller than 36in, while a 5ft 4in woman should have a waist size no larger than 32in.

Children in particular could be screened as early as five using the waist-to-height ratio to identify those at greatest risk of obesity and serious health conditions later in life, it was claimed.

Researchers from Oxford Brookes University examined data on patients whose BMI and waist to height ratio were measured in the 1980s.

Twenty years later, death rates among the group were much more closely linked to participants’ earlier waist-to-height ratio than their BMI, suggesting it is a more useful tool for identifying health risks at an early stage.

By comparing the life expectancies of various groups of people at different waist-to-height ratios, they were able to calculate how many years of life were lost as people’s waistlines increased.

For example, a man aged 30 with a waist-to-height ratio of 0.8, representing the largest one in 500 men, stood to lose 16.7 years of life due to their size.

A 50-year-old woman with the same ratio, accounting for about one in 150 women of the same age, would lose 8.2 years of life on average.

Dr Margaret Ashwell, whose previous research has suggested that the waist-to-height ratio could be a better tool than BMI for predicting a range of diseases, presented her findings at the European Congress on Obesity in Liverpool.

She said: “If you are measuring waist-to-height ratio you are getting a much earlier prection that something is going wrong, and then you can do something about it.

“The beauty is that you can do it in centimetres or inches, it doesn’t matter. We have got increasing evidence that this works very well with children as well, because whilst they grow up their waist is growing but also their height.”