The smoking ban has led to a sharp fall in heart attacks

Major research suggests that the introduction of a smoking ban has resulted in a 40 per cent fall in the number of people suffering from heart attacks as the result of passive smoking.

Major research suggests that the introduction of a smoking ban has resulted in a 40 per cent fall in the number of people suffering from heart attacks as the result of passive smoking
Heart attack rates in the UK have fallen by up to 42 per cent since the 2007 smoking ban, major research suggests.

A review of 77 studies found that reduced exposure to passive smoking has caused a “significant reduction” in heart problems across the population.

Several of the studies found that non smokers and ex-smokers gained most the benefits.

The Cochrane study examined a range of health outcomes in 21 countries, including the UK, which have introduced bans in recent years.

Researchers concluded that there was strong evidence that reduced exposure to passive smoking reduced the number of people suffering from cardiac problems.

The studies examined included a Liverpool study of 57,000 hospital patients. This found admissions for heart attacks fell by 42 per cent among men and 43 per cent among women in the five years since the ban was introduced in 2007.

And US research reviewed found a 14 per cent reduction in strokes in counties which introduced a ban, compared with those which did not.

Some 33 out of the 44 studies reviewed on heart disease found a “significant reduction” following the introduction of smoking bans.

Researchers said the studies took account of other trends over the period – such as a large increase in rates of statin prescribing, to protect against heart disease.

Review author, Professor Cecily Kelleher, from University College, Dublin, said: “The current evidence provides more robust support for the previous conclusions that the introduction of national legislative smoking bans does lead to improved health outcomes through a reduction in second hand smoke exposure for countries and their populations.”

Professor Peter Weissberg, medical director of the British Heart Foundation, said: “This review strengthens previous evidence that banning smoking in public places leads to fewer deaths from heart disease and that this effect is greatest in the non-smoking population.

He said the studies were observational and all had their limitations, but it would be difficult to study the effects of passive smoking in a more robust scientific way.

Researchers said the evidence was less clear about whether the introduction of bans had actually helped people to give up smoking.

Nonetheless, smokers seemed to benefit from some reduction in exposure to passive smoke.

One Scottish study, which found no fall in smoking rates after a ban was introduced in 2006, found a 14 per cent reduction in hospital admissions for heart problems among smokers, and a 21 per cent reduction in admissions among non-smokers.

The research found the impact of the ban on respiratory health, and conditions such as asthma, was less clear cut, though seven of 12 studies on asthma found reduced hospitalisations since the ban.

Healthier lifestyles could cut cancer cases by a third

About a third of cancer cases in the UK could be prevented if people ate healthily, exercised more and cut down on alcohol according to new research.

About a third of cancer cases in the UK could be prevented if people ate healthily, exercised more and cut down on alcohol according to new research
Exercise is an important way of keeping fit and cutting body fat, which is linked to the risk of developing cancer.

Data from the World Cancer Research Fund suggests that 20,000 cases of breast cancer and about 19,000 cases of bowel cancer could be stopped each year with small changes in lifestyle.

In 2013, there were more than 351,000 new cases of cancer in the UK. The WCRF said 84,000 could have been prevented.

Head of research Dr Rachel Thompson said simple changes to diet and lifestyle could make “a huge difference” in the battle against cancer.

“Even minor adjustments, like 10 to 15 extra minutes of physical activity each day, cutting down on alcohol, or limiting your intake of high calorie foods and sugary drinks, will help decrease your cancer risk,” she said.

She said that after cutting out smoking, being a healthy body weight was the most important thing people could do to cut their risk of getting cancer.

“There is strong evidence that being overweight or obese increases the risk of 10 cancers,” she said.

The link between a healthy lifestyle and the risk of developing cancer is well known, and this new data looks at preventable cases in 13 of the UK’s most common cancers.

For example, among men, 9% of cases of advanced prostate cancer could be prevented every year if men were not overweight or obese.

Lung cancer cases could be cut by 15,000 (33%) by getting people to stop smoking.

And 38% of breast cancer cases could be prevented, particularly in postmenopausal women, by increasing physical exercise and reducing body fat.

The WCRF also said that 2,200 cases of kidney cancer and 1,400 cases of pancreatic cancer could be prevented if people adopted a healthier lifestyle.

Prof Kevin Fenton, director of health and wellbeing at Public Health England, said the UK was currently behind on cancer survival rates compared with other European countries.

He said one major factor was that cancer prevention was not in the public consciousness.

“The link between tobacco and cancer is widely known and readily accepted by the public, but many are not yet fully convinced that healthy eating, regular exercise and not drinking alcohol, can lower your cancer risk.”

From: https://www.fithealthylives.com/2016/06/healthier-lifestyles-could-cut-cancer-cases-by-a-third-2/

Female lung cancer cases top 20,000

Cases of lung cancer in women have reached 20,000 a year in the UK for the first time since records began.

Female lung cancer cases top 20,000The figure for 2012 represents a rise from 14,000 in 1993, according to the data compiled by Cancer Research UK.

It means the rate of lung cancer in the female population has risen by 22% to 65 cases per 100,000 people.

The trend is the opposite of what is happening with men and is linked to smoking-  which peaked in men in the 1940s but in women peaked in the 1970s.

About 24,000 men are diagnosed with lung cancer each year, which means it is the second most common cancer for both sexes.

Prof Caroline Dive, from Cancer Research UK, said: “It really is devastating to see that the number of women diagnosed with lung cancer continues to climb.”

“We also know survival remains poor and one of the problems is that lung cancer tends to be diagnosed at a late stage when it has already spread.”

That makes it hard to treat and as a result lung cancer claims the lives of 35,000 people each year.

Just 10% of people live for five years after diagnosis – compared with more than 80% for breast and prostate cancer.

Prof Dive said efforts were being made to tackle this with lung cancer one of its key priorities of its research strategy.

The work focuses on a new technique to carry out a biopsy using magnets to capture rogue cancer cells in the blood of patients – potentially providing vital information on the biology of the disease, which could help improve treatment.

But as well as investing in new treatment techniques, Nell Barrie, senior science communication manager at Cancer Research UK, said: “It’s vital that we keep on fighting against lung cancer.”

“It’s the biggest cancer killer in the UK so the government and health service must work to help smokers quit by providing more stop smoking services to help people give up this deadly addiction.”

Health Direct laments the sad increase in female lung cancers as these deaths are wholly preventable.

Smoking ban cut child hospital admissions

Thousands of children have been spared serious illness and hospital treatment since the smoking ban was introduced in England in 2007.

Thousands of children have been spared serious illness and hospital treatment since the smoking ban was introduced in England in 2007The study, in the European Respiratory Journal, looked at 1.6 million hospital admissions of under 14s from 2001-12.

The law against smoking in indoor public places saw 11,000 fewer children being admitted to hospital with lung infections every year, it found.

Researchers said it showed anti-smoking legislation was improving child health.

The University of Edinburgh study compared the figures for hospital admissions after the ban with mathematical predictions of the number of admissions that would have occurred without the smoking ban.

It estimated that hospital admissions for children with respiratory infections fell by 3.5% immediately after the ban was introduced.

While the biggest effect was seen in the number of children suffering chest infections – which dropped by almost 14% – the number of admissions attributable to nose, throat and sinus infections also went down. But these effects were more gradual, the study said.

There is a well established link between second hand smoke exposure and bronchitis, bronchiolitis, middle ear infections and respiratory tract infections.

Dr Jasper Been, of the University of Edinburgh and Maastricht University, said: “This study is further demonstration of the considerable potential of anti-smoking laws to improve child health.”

“Although our results cannot definitively establish a cause and effect, the rigorous analysis clearly shows that the introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with significant reductions in hospital admissions among children.”

Data suggested the ban on smoking in public places had also led to a rise in the number of smoke free homes, reducing second hand smoke exposure among children, the study said.

The ban is estimated to have reduced adults smoking in the home from 65% to 55%.

Health Direct estimates that without the ban on smoking the NHS would be treating more sick children at a significant cost which may approximate to £25 million a year- highlighting the savings from preventative changes.

Smoking kills two thirds of smokers

The risk of death from smoking may be much higher than previously thought – tobacco kills up to two in every three smokers not one in every two according to new research.

Smoking kills two thirds of smokersThe study tracked more than 200,000 Australian smokers and non smokers above the age of 45 over six years.

Mortality risk went up with cigarette use, the BMC Medicine reported.

Smoking 10 cigarettes a day doubled the risk, while 20 a day smokers were four to five times more likely to die.

Although someone who smokes could lead a long life, their habit makes this less likely.

Smoking increases the risk of a multitude of health problems- including heart disease and cancer.

Cancer Research UK currently advises that half of all long term smokers eventually die from cancer or other smoking related illnesses- but recent evidence suggests the figure may even be higher.

Newer studies in UK women, British doctors and American Cancer Society volunteers have put the figure at up to 67%, says Prof Emily Banks, lead author of the Australian study.

“We knew smoking was bad, but we now have direct independent evidence that confirms the disturbing findings that have been emerging internationally.

“Even with the very low rates of smoking that we have in Australia, we found that smokers have around threefold the risk of premature death of those who have never smoked. We also found smokers will die an estimated 10 years earlier than non-smokers,” she said.

George Butterworth, tobacco policy manager at Cancer Research UK, said: “It’s a real concern that the devastation caused by smoking may be even greater than we previously thought.”

“Earlier research has shown, as a conservative estimate, one in two long term smokers die from smoking related diseases in the UK, but these new Australian figures show a higher risk.”

“Smoking habits differ between Australia and the UK in terms of how much people smoke and the age they start, so we can’t conclude that the two-in-three figure necessarily applies to the UK.”

In Australia, about 13% of adults smoke. In the UK, the figure is about 20%.

Health Direct points out that stopping smoking can bring a person’s health risks back down.

Ten years after quitting, risk of lung cancer falls to half that of a smoker and risk of heart attack falls to the same as someone who has never smoked, according to NHS Smokefree.

Fourty per cent of cancers are avoidable

Four in 10 cancer cases- 600,000 in the UK- could be prevented if people led healthier lives say experts.

Fourty per cent of cancers are avoidableThe latest research figures from Cancer Research UK show smoking is by far the biggest avoidable risk factor- followed by unhealthy diets.

The charity is urging people to consider their health when making their New Year resolutions.

Limiting alcohol intake and doing regular exercise is also good advice.

According to the figures spanning five years from 2007 to 2011, more than 300,000 cases of cancer recorded were linked to smoking.

A further 145,000 were linked to unhealthy diets containing too much processed food.

Obesity contributed to 88,000 cases and alcohol to 62,200.

Sun damage to the skin and physical inactivity were also contributing factors.

Prof Max Parkin, a Cancer Research UK statistician based at Queen Mary University of London, said: “There’s now little doubt that certain lifestyle choices can have a big impact on cancer risk, with research around the world all pointing to the same key risk factors.”

“Of course everyone enjoys some extra treats during the Christmas holidays so we don’t want to ban mince pies and wine but it’s a good time to think about taking up some healthy habits for 2015.”

“Leading a healthy lifestyle can’t guarantee someone won’t get cancer but we can stack the odds in our favour by taking positive steps now that will help decrease our cancer risk in future.”

Public Health England says a healthy lifestyle can play a vital role in reducing cancer risk. It says campaigns such as Smokefree, Dry January and Change4Life Sugar Swaps all aim to raise public awareness.

NHS surgery restriction for smokers and obese

The NHS in Devon is to deny routine surgery to smokers and the morbidly obeseunless they quit smoking or lose weight.

NHS surgery restriction for smokers and obesePatients with a BMI of 35 or above will have to shed 5% of their weight while smokers will have to quit eight weeks before surgery.

The NHS in Devon has a £14.5 million deficit and says the cuts are needed to help it meet waiting list targets. The measures were announced the same day government announced an extra £2 billion of annual NHS funding.

The Northern, Eastern and Western Devon Clinical Commissioning Group (NEW Devon CCG) organises most NHS treatment in the area.

It announced a range of cost-cutting measures yesterday including only providing one hearing aid, instead of the normal two, to people with hearing loss. Shoulder surgery will also be restricted.

In November, the CCG said it would take “urgent and necessary” measures to prioritise major treatment. That included delaying hip and knee operations for the morbidly obese, but Wednesday’s announcement applies to all routine procedures.

NEW Devon CCG said it would not restrict IVF treatment or caesarean sections carried out on medical grounds.

A statement said all the decisions were “interim commissioning positions” and would require further consultation. Patients with a date for surgery will not be affected but will be offered weight management or quit smoking support.

Dr Tim Burke, Chair of NEW Devon CCG, said: “All of these temporary measures relate to planned operations and treatments, not those which must be done as an emergency or to save lives.

“We recognise that each patient is an individual and where their GP or consultant feels that there are exceptional circumstances we will convene a panel of clinicians to consider the case.”

NEW Devon CCG said it would announce another round of cost-cutting measures “in due course”.

“We don’t under estimate how difficult it will be for some people to lose weight or stop smoking and we will continue to support them,” said Dr Burke.

“The CCG has a legal duty to live within its financial resources and the prioritisation of services is helping us to do that.”

In a statement the Royal College of Surgeons said it was “concerned” by the move and warned the region was merely storing up “greater pressures” for the future.

It said: “The need for an operation should always be judged by a surgeon based on their clinical assessment of the patient and the risks and benefits of the surgery – not determined by arbitrary criteria.”

“Losing weight, or giving up smoking is an important consideration for patients undergoing surgery in order to improve their outcomes, but for some patients these steps may not be possible.”

“A blanket ban on scheduled operations for those who cannot follow these measures is unacceptable and too rigid a measure for ensuring patients receive the best care possible.”

Obesity costing UK economy same as smoking

New research shows that the cost of obesity to the UK economy is now the same as smoking.

Obesity costing UK economy same as smokingThe worldwide cost of obesity is about the same as smoking or armed conflict and greater than both alcoholism and climate change new research has suggested.

The McKinsey Global Institute said obesity cost £1.3 trillion, or 2.8% of annual economic activity – it cost the UK £47 billion.

Some 2.1bn people – about 30% of the world’s population – were overweight or obese, the researchers added.

They said measures that relied less on individual responsibility should be used to tackle the problem.

The report said there was a “steep economic toll”, and the proportion could rise to almost half of the world’s population by 2030.

The financial costs of obesity are growing – for health care and more widely in the economy. By causing illness, obesity results in working days and output lost.

The researchers argued that a range of ambitious policies needed to be considered and a systemic rather than piecemeal response was essential.

The report said the right measures could save the UK’s NHS £760 million a year

A person is considered obese if they are very overweight with a high degree of body fat.

The most common way to assess if a person is obese is to check their body mass index (BMI), which divides your weight in kilograms by your height in metres squared. If your BMI is above 25 you are overweight. A BMI of 30-40 is considered obese, while above 40 is very obese. A BMI of less than 18.5 is underweight.

“These initiatives would need to draw on interventions that rely less on individual responsibility and more on changes to the environment,” the report said.

If the right measures were taken there could be long-term savings of £760m a year for the UK’s National Health Service, it added.

The initiatives assessed in the report include portion control for some packaged food and the reformulation of fast and processed food.

It said these were more effective than taxes on high-fat and high-sugar products or public health campaigns. Weight management programmes and workplace fitness schemes were also considered.

The report concluded that “a strategy of sufficient scale is needed as obesity is now reaching crisis proportions”.

The rising prevalence of obesity was driving the increase in heart and lung disease, diabetes and lifestyle-related cancers, it said

The report was produced by McKinsey Global Institute, the business and economics research arm of consultancy firm McKinsey & Company.

Heart disease warnings missed by most adults

Many adults in the UK are unaware of the risk factors for heart disease, according to new research.

Heart disease warnings missed by most adultsWhile a third of people are worried about getting dementia or cancer, only 2% are afraid of coronary heart disease, a survey by the British Heart Foundation has found and one in ten adults confessed to not knowing how to look after their hearts.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for about 74,000 deaths in the UK each year and roughly one in five men and one in eight women die from the condition.

Dr Mike Knapton, associate medical director at the British Heart Foundation, said: “Your heart is the most vital organ in the body, but all too often we take it for granted. Despite being a largely preventable condition, coronary heart disease is still the UK’s single biggest killer, causing unnecessary heartache for thousands of families.”

As well as chest pain, the main symptoms of CHD are heart attacks and heart failure. However, not everyone has the same symptoms and some people may not have any before CHD is diagnosed.

The British Heart Foundation has issued 10 tips to prevent heart disease:

  • Give up smoking
  • If you’re over 40, take up your free NHS health check
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Lead an active lifestyle
  • Ditch the salt
  • Eat your “five a day” of fruit and vegetables
  • Cut down on saturated fat
  • Read food labels to find out if something is healthy for you
  • Don’t drink too much alcohol
  • Watch food portion sizes.

The poll was conducted by YouGov and included 1,010 men and 1,089 women.

Meanwhile the World Health Organization (WHO) is calling on countries to take action on salt to cut deaths from heart disease. It wants governments to sign up to reducing global salt intake.

“If the target to reduce salt by 30% globally by 2025 is achieved, millions of lives can be saved from heart disease, stroke and related conditions,” said director Dr Oleg Chestnov.

Smoking bans cut asthma and premature births by 10%

Laws banning smoking in public places have had a positive impact on child health, an international study in the Lancet suggests.Smoking bans cut asthma and premature births by 10%Researchers found a 10% reduction in premature births and severe childhood asthma attacks within a year of smoke-free laws being introduced.

A research team analysed 11 previous studies from North America and Europe.

The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists said smoking bans benefitted adults and children.

This is one of the first large studies to look at how anti-smoking laws in different countries and states are affecting the health of children living in those regions.

Laws that prohibit smoking in public places, such as bars, restaurants and workplaces, have already been shown to protect adults from the dangers of passive smoking.

In this study, researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Maastricht University, Hasselt University in Belgium, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital looked at more than 2.5 million births and almost 250,000 hospital attendances for asthma attacks in children.

Dr Jasper Been, lead study author from the Maastricht University Medical Centre in The Netherlands, said the research on children under 12 was revealing.

“Our study provides clear evidence that smoking bans have considerable public health benefits for perinatal and child health, and provides strong support for WHO recommendations to create smoke-free public environments on a national level.”

The study also found a 5% decline in children being born very small for their age after the introduction of smoke-free laws.

Co-author Professor Aziz Sheikh, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital, in Boston, Massachusetts, and the University of Edinburgh, said there was potential to improve the health of more children.

“The many countries that are yet to enforce smoke-free legislation should in the light of these findings reconsider their positions on this important health policy question.”

Previous research suggests that 40% of children worldwide are regularly exposed to second-hand smoke, which has been shown to be a cause of respiratory disease and a trigger for asthma attacks in children.

Recent European research also showed that passive smoking causes thickening of children’s arteries which can increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes in later life.

Experts say children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of second-hand smoke because their lungs and immune systems are still developing.

At present, 16% of the world’s population is covered by smoke-free laws.

Commenting on the study, Professor Ronnie Lamont from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists said the study provided further evidence that smoking bans had substantial health benefits for adults and children.

“Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to have adverse effects on foetal development and pregnant women need to be informed of the risks and should be offered advice and support to help them give up. It is important that healthcare professionals encourage women to lead a healthy lifestyle.”