Healthier lifestyles could cut cancer cases by a third

About a third of cancer cases in the UK could be prevented if people ate healthily, exercised more and cut down on alcohol according to new research.

About a third of cancer cases in the UK could be prevented if people ate healthily, exercised more and cut down on alcohol according to new research
Exercise is an important way of keeping fit and cutting body fat, which is linked to the risk of developing cancer.

Data from the World Cancer Research Fund suggests that 20,000 cases of breast cancer and about 19,000 cases of bowel cancer could be stopped each year with small changes in lifestyle.

In 2013, there were more than 351,000 new cases of cancer in the UK. The WCRF said 84,000 could have been prevented.

Head of research Dr Rachel Thompson said simple changes to diet and lifestyle could make “a huge difference” in the battle against cancer.

“Even minor adjustments, like 10 to 15 extra minutes of physical activity each day, cutting down on alcohol, or limiting your intake of high calorie foods and sugary drinks, will help decrease your cancer risk,” she said.

She said that after cutting out smoking, being a healthy body weight was the most important thing people could do to cut their risk of getting cancer.

“There is strong evidence that being overweight or obese increases the risk of 10 cancers,” she said.

The link between a healthy lifestyle and the risk of developing cancer is well known, and this new data looks at preventable cases in 13 of the UK’s most common cancers.

For example, among men, 9% of cases of advanced prostate cancer could be prevented every year if men were not overweight or obese.

Lung cancer cases could be cut by 15,000 (33%) by getting people to stop smoking.

And 38% of breast cancer cases could be prevented, particularly in postmenopausal women, by increasing physical exercise and reducing body fat.

The WCRF also said that 2,200 cases of kidney cancer and 1,400 cases of pancreatic cancer could be prevented if people adopted a healthier lifestyle.

Prof Kevin Fenton, director of health and wellbeing at Public Health England, said the UK was currently behind on cancer survival rates compared with other European countries.

He said one major factor was that cancer prevention was not in the public consciousness.

“The link between tobacco and cancer is widely known and readily accepted by the public, but many are not yet fully convinced that healthy eating, regular exercise and not drinking alcohol, can lower your cancer risk.”

From: https://www.fithealthylives.com/2016/06/healthier-lifestyles-could-cut-cancer-cases-by-a-third-2/

Obese smokers denied surgery

The Royal College of Surgeons found a third of local NHS health bosses put restrictions on surgery for smokers and the obese.

The Royal College of Surgeons found a third of local NHS health bosses put restrictions on surgery for smokers and the obeseThe Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) has been increasingly alarmed about the rationing of surgery in the NHS in the tough financial climate. However, some local NHS groups criticised in the report say their polices are based on good evidence.

Its report is based on freedom of information returns from nearly all of the 209 clinical commissioning groups in England and all seven health boards in Wales.

While some CCGs have voluntary policies in place, where patients are encouraged to stop smoking or lose weight, others have introduced mandatory policies, which means patients have to meet fixed criteria before surgery.

The college says mandatory policies are “a cause for concern” and it fears patients with a high body mass index (BMI) or who smoke are becoming “soft targets” for NHS savings.

The report reveals 31% of CCGs and one health board in Wales have at least one policy requiring people to lose weight or stop smoking before they can be referred for routine surgery.

The report suggests one in five CCGs has mandatory policies on BMI levels before hip and knee replacement surgery, while 4% have mandatory policies on getting patients to stop smoking before hip and knee replacement surgery.

Of the CCGs that responded, 22% reported having at least one “voluntary” policy in place.

The Royal College of Surgeons said any blanket ban on surgery based on a patient’s weight or whether they smoked was wrong and not supported by national guidance.

Instead, president RCS Clare Marx said, patients should be encouraged to sign up to programmes to help them stop smoking and manage their weight while awaiting surgery.

“NHS surgical treatment should be based on clinical guidance and patients should be dealt with on a case-by-case basis,” she said.

“In some instances, a patient might need surgery in order to help them to do exercise and lose weight. While it is difficult to categorically prove such policies are aimed at saving money, it is unlikely to be a coincidence that many financially challenged CCGs are restricting access to surgery.”

She added National Institute for Curbing Expenditure (NICE) guidance did not support these mandatory bans for routine surgery.

British Orthopaedic Association president Tim Wilton said there was no clinical or financial justification for refusing to fund hip or knee replacements.

“Good outcomes can be achieved for patients regardless of whether they smoke or are obese, even at BMIs of over 50, and these surgeries are highly cost effective, typically delivering sustained pain relief for a cost that equates to just £7.50 a week,” he said.

“Hard and fast rules also undermine the NHS’s ability to involve patients in decisions about their own care, and are a distraction from the task at hand: making sure patients receive the best possible advice and care, to enable them to make the best possible decisions for their health – including losing weight and stopping smoking where appropriate.”

Sugar Tax- how will it work?

A new sugar tax on the soft drinks will be introduced in the UK the chancellor announced yesterday.

A new sugar tax on the soft drinks will be introduced in the UK the chancellor announced yesterdayThe move has been hailed by campaigners as a significant step in the fight against child obesity.

So how will the sugar tax work?

The levy is squarely aimed at high sugar drinks- particularly fizzy drinks, which are popular among teenagers.

Pure fruit juices and milk based drinks will currently be excluded and the smallest producers will have an exemption from the scheme.

It will be imposed on companies according to the volume of the sugar sweetened drinks they produce or import.

There will be two bands – one for total sugar content above 5g per 100 millilitres and a second, higher band for the most sugary drinks with more than 8g per 100 millilitres. Analysis by the Office for Budgetary Responsibility suggests they will be levied at 18p and 24p per litre.

Examples of drinks which would currently fall under the higher rate of the sugar tax include full strength Coca-Cola and Pepsi, Lucozade Energy and Irn-Bru, the Treasury said. The lower rate would catch drinks such as Dr Pepper, Fanta, Sprite, Schweppes Indian tonic water and alcohol free shandy.

When it comes to the sugar tax, all the emphasis has been on drinks. There are a number of reasons for this.

Firstly, unlike a chocolate bar or slice of cake, they are not automatically seen as a treat. People who drink them tend to have them every day.

Secondly, some of the drinks are incredibly high in sugar. A typical can contains enough sugar – about nine teaspoons – to take someone over their recommended sugar intake in one hit.

For teenagers they are the number one source of sugar intake while overall, children get a third of their daily sugar intake from them.

They have also been dubbed “empty calories” as they have no nutritional benefit.

Mr Osborne said the money raised – an estimated £520 million a year, will be spent on increasing the funding for sport in primary schools.

There has been pressure on ministers to increase spending in this area to build on the legacy of the 2012 Olympic Games and in light of the low numbers of children who take part in regular activity.

But while the tax applies to the whole of the UK, Mr Osborne announcement on where the money is spent applies solely to England. The devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are free to decide how to spend their share.

The issue has been described as one of the most serious public health challenges for the 21st Century by the World Health Organization, while NHS England’s Simon Stevens has dubbed it “the new smoking”.

Health Direct applauds this new initiative and is sure that this will be just the start. Mr Osbourne has a habit of returning to existing taxes and constantly increasing them- like to tobacco and wine.

Younger people having more strokes

There has been a big rise in the number of working age men and women having stroke.

big rise in the number of working age men and women having stroke.In England in 2014 there were 6,221 hospital admissions for men aged 40-54 – a rise of 1,961 on 14 years earlier according to reserach by the Stroke Association.

Experts said unhealthy lifestyles were partly to blame for the rise, though the growing population and changes to hospital practice also played a part.

Researchers say based on their findings strokes should not be considered as a disease of the old.

Strokes are caused by blood clots or bleeds to the brain and can lead to long lasting disability.

The majority occur in people aged over 65, and though rates are decreasing in this group, this report suggests growing numbers of younger people are at risk.

Experts analysed national hospital admission data spanning 2000 to 2014.

These findings highlight the importance of ensuring your blood pressure and cholesterol are under control, as well as having a health check at the age of 40.

Trends for people in their 40s and early 50s appeared to be getting worse. In women aged 40-54, there were an extra 1,075 strokes recorded in 2014, compared with 2000.

Experts said growing obesity levels, sedentary lives and unhealthy diets – which raise the risks of dangerous blood clots – all played a part.

And they argued strokes among this age group had long lasting personal and financial impacts on individuals and their families, as well as on the economy.

Recovering patients can find it difficult to return to work and should have more support from employers, the report suggests.

Jon Barrick, of the Stroke Association, said: “These figures show stroke can no longer be seen as a disease of older people.”

“There is an alarming increase in the numbers of people having a stroke in working age. This comes at a huge cost, not only to the individual, but also to their families and to health and social care services.”

The Stroke Association said that even younger people should be aware of the warning signs such as dizziness, difficulties with speech and changes in the face.

Obese could lose benefits if they refuse treatment

People who do work because they are obese or have alcohol or drug problems could have their benefits cut if they refuse treatment.

Obese could lose benefits if they refuse treatment David Cameron has launched a review of the current benefits system, which he says fails to encourage people with long term, treatable issues to get medical help.

Some 100,000 people with such conditions claim Employment and Support Allowance (ESA), the government says.

There is currently no requirement for people with alcohol, drug or weight-related health problems to undertake treatment.

Mr Cameron has asked Prof Dame Carol Black-  an adviser to the Department of Health, to look at whether it would be appropriate to withhold benefits from those who are unwilling to accept help.

Announcing the proposal, he said: “Some people have drug or alcohol problems, but refuse treatment. In other cases people have problems with their weight that could be addressed – but instead a life on benefits rather than work becomes the choice.”

“It is not fair to ask hardworking taxpayers to fund the benefits of people who refuse to accept the support and treatment that could help them get back to a life of work.”

David Cameron sees the wide-ranging welfare reforms introduced in this Parliament as part of a “moral mission”. He has said they give new hope to people who have been written off by helping them back to work.

Similar proposals have been considered by the government before- in 2010 and 2012 the Conservatives considered plans to remove or cut benefits for drug and alcohol addicts who refused treatment.

At the time the plans were met with concern by charities, who said there was no evidence benefit sanctions would help addicts engage with treatment.

Disabilities Minister Mark Harper said people who were overweight or had alcohol or drug problems needed treatment to get back to work

ESA was introduced in 2008 to replace incapacity benefit and income support, paid because of an illness or disability. It requires claimants to undertake a work capability assessment to see how much their illness or disability affects their ability to work.

Once a claim is accepted, those receiving ESA get up to £108.15 a week. Some 60% of the 2.5 million people claiming ESA have been doing so for more than five years, government figures show.

Fourty per cent of cancers are avoidable

Four in 10 cancer cases- 600,000 in the UK- could be prevented if people led healthier lives say experts.

Fourty per cent of cancers are avoidableThe latest research figures from Cancer Research UK show smoking is by far the biggest avoidable risk factor- followed by unhealthy diets.

The charity is urging people to consider their health when making their New Year resolutions.

Limiting alcohol intake and doing regular exercise is also good advice.

According to the figures spanning five years from 2007 to 2011, more than 300,000 cases of cancer recorded were linked to smoking.

A further 145,000 were linked to unhealthy diets containing too much processed food.

Obesity contributed to 88,000 cases and alcohol to 62,200.

Sun damage to the skin and physical inactivity were also contributing factors.

Prof Max Parkin, a Cancer Research UK statistician based at Queen Mary University of London, said: “There’s now little doubt that certain lifestyle choices can have a big impact on cancer risk, with research around the world all pointing to the same key risk factors.”

“Of course everyone enjoys some extra treats during the Christmas holidays so we don’t want to ban mince pies and wine but it’s a good time to think about taking up some healthy habits for 2015.”

“Leading a healthy lifestyle can’t guarantee someone won’t get cancer but we can stack the odds in our favour by taking positive steps now that will help decrease our cancer risk in future.”

Public Health England says a healthy lifestyle can play a vital role in reducing cancer risk. It says campaigns such as Smokefree, Dry January and Change4Life Sugar Swaps all aim to raise public awareness.

Nearly half the population takes prescription drugs

Half of women and 43% of men in England are now regularly taking prescription drugs- according to the Health Survey for England.

Nearly half the population takes prescription drugsThe report by the Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) showed an average of 18.7 prescriptions per person in England in 2013 with the annual cost to the NHS was in excess of £15 billion.

All the figures exclude contraceptives and smoking cessation products.

Nearly a third of prescriptions were for cardiovascular disease with more than 65 million prescriptions for tackling high blood pressure, heart failure or cholesterol levels.

Simvastatin – which lowers cholesterol – was the single most prescribed item with 40 million prescriptions.

Dr Jennifer Mindell, one of the report’s authors at University College London, said: “This is the first nationally-representative study to report on the use of prescribed medicines taken by people in the community, not just those within the healthcare system.”

“That half of men over 65 are taking cholesterol-lowering medicines reflects the high risk of cardiovascular disease in this group.

“Stopping smoking, being a healthy weight, eating more vegetables and fruit, and being physically active reduce people’s risk of these diseases, for people who want to avoid taking medicines.”

This study focuses on the drugs patients say they are taking rather than the number of prescriptions written by a GP as up to half of such prescriptions are either not taken or not taken as recommended.

But figures for community prescribing – which include GPs and dentists, but not hospitals – show:

  • In Wales there were 74 million prescriptions in 2013.
  • In Scotland there were 99 million prescriptions in the financial year 2013-14.
  • In Northern Ireland there were 35 million prescription in 2010.

Analyses of similar data sets for England shows community prescribing, including contraceptives, increased from 650 million in 2003 to more than 1,000 million in 2013.

Antidepressants were taken by more than one in 10 women – double the figure for men.

The drugs were most commonly taken by middle-aged women and those from deprived areas – 17% of the poorest women took antidepressants compared with 7% of the richest.

Dr Sarah Jackson, at University College London, commented: “It’s well known that rates of depression are much higher among women than men, so I am not surprised to see that antidepressant use follows the same pattern in this study.

“People with depression are less likely to be in regular employment, and people who are unemployed or in low paid jobs are more likely to have depression.”

Overweight and obese people were more likely to need prescription drugs. More than half of severely obese people in England reported taking at least one prescribed medicine and a third took at least three.

Obesity is often associated with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, joint pain and depression. Lifestyle changes are always recommended in the first instance, but medicines can help to address the symptoms and this study shows that medicine use increases steadily with body mass index.

NHS surgery restriction for smokers and obese

The NHS in Devon is to deny routine surgery to smokers and the morbidly obeseunless they quit smoking or lose weight.

NHS surgery restriction for smokers and obesePatients with a BMI of 35 or above will have to shed 5% of their weight while smokers will have to quit eight weeks before surgery.

The NHS in Devon has a £14.5 million deficit and says the cuts are needed to help it meet waiting list targets. The measures were announced the same day government announced an extra £2 billion of annual NHS funding.

The Northern, Eastern and Western Devon Clinical Commissioning Group (NEW Devon CCG) organises most NHS treatment in the area.

It announced a range of cost-cutting measures yesterday including only providing one hearing aid, instead of the normal two, to people with hearing loss. Shoulder surgery will also be restricted.

In November, the CCG said it would take “urgent and necessary” measures to prioritise major treatment. That included delaying hip and knee operations for the morbidly obese, but Wednesday’s announcement applies to all routine procedures.

NEW Devon CCG said it would not restrict IVF treatment or caesarean sections carried out on medical grounds.

A statement said all the decisions were “interim commissioning positions” and would require further consultation. Patients with a date for surgery will not be affected but will be offered weight management or quit smoking support.

Dr Tim Burke, Chair of NEW Devon CCG, said: “All of these temporary measures relate to planned operations and treatments, not those which must be done as an emergency or to save lives.

“We recognise that each patient is an individual and where their GP or consultant feels that there are exceptional circumstances we will convene a panel of clinicians to consider the case.”

NEW Devon CCG said it would announce another round of cost-cutting measures “in due course”.

“We don’t under estimate how difficult it will be for some people to lose weight or stop smoking and we will continue to support them,” said Dr Burke.

“The CCG has a legal duty to live within its financial resources and the prioritisation of services is helping us to do that.”

In a statement the Royal College of Surgeons said it was “concerned” by the move and warned the region was merely storing up “greater pressures” for the future.

It said: “The need for an operation should always be judged by a surgeon based on their clinical assessment of the patient and the risks and benefits of the surgery – not determined by arbitrary criteria.”

“Losing weight, or giving up smoking is an important consideration for patients undergoing surgery in order to improve their outcomes, but for some patients these steps may not be possible.”

“A blanket ban on scheduled operations for those who cannot follow these measures is unacceptable and too rigid a measure for ensuring patients receive the best care possible.”

Obesity costing UK economy same as smoking

New research shows that the cost of obesity to the UK economy is now the same as smoking.

Obesity costing UK economy same as smokingThe worldwide cost of obesity is about the same as smoking or armed conflict and greater than both alcoholism and climate change new research has suggested.

The McKinsey Global Institute said obesity cost £1.3 trillion, or 2.8% of annual economic activity – it cost the UK £47 billion.

Some 2.1bn people – about 30% of the world’s population – were overweight or obese, the researchers added.

They said measures that relied less on individual responsibility should be used to tackle the problem.

The report said there was a “steep economic toll”, and the proportion could rise to almost half of the world’s population by 2030.

The financial costs of obesity are growing – for health care and more widely in the economy. By causing illness, obesity results in working days and output lost.

The researchers argued that a range of ambitious policies needed to be considered and a systemic rather than piecemeal response was essential.

The report said the right measures could save the UK’s NHS £760 million a year

A person is considered obese if they are very overweight with a high degree of body fat.

The most common way to assess if a person is obese is to check their body mass index (BMI), which divides your weight in kilograms by your height in metres squared. If your BMI is above 25 you are overweight. A BMI of 30-40 is considered obese, while above 40 is very obese. A BMI of less than 18.5 is underweight.

“These initiatives would need to draw on interventions that rely less on individual responsibility and more on changes to the environment,” the report said.

If the right measures were taken there could be long-term savings of £760m a year for the UK’s National Health Service, it added.

The initiatives assessed in the report include portion control for some packaged food and the reformulation of fast and processed food.

It said these were more effective than taxes on high-fat and high-sugar products or public health campaigns. Weight management programmes and workplace fitness schemes were also considered.

The report concluded that “a strategy of sufficient scale is needed as obesity is now reaching crisis proportions”.

The rising prevalence of obesity was driving the increase in heart and lung disease, diabetes and lifestyle-related cancers, it said

The report was produced by McKinsey Global Institute, the business and economics research arm of consultancy firm McKinsey & Company.

Dementia is biggest killer of women in UK

Dementia is the biggest cause of death for women in England and Wales official figures show.

Dementia is biggest killer of women in UKThe disease now kills more than three times as many women as breast cancer and thousands more than either heart attacks or stroke.

Analysts say the rising numbers may be because doctors are becoming more aware of the disease and recording it on death certificates more frequently.

Coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in men. For males, dementia is the third most common cause of death.

The gradual wasting away of the brain in dementia cuts lives short. The condition can be recorded as the sole cause of death, but is frequently found as an underlying condition. Many people with dementia ultimately die from pneumonia- due to physical inactivity.

The data, published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) showed more than half a million people died in England and Wales in 2013

Cancer is the leading killer when all subtypes of cancer are combined across both genders. Nearly one in three deaths last year was from some form of cancer.

The latest data confirms a dramatic shift in the causes of death in the past decade.

Between 2003 and 2013 the percentage of deaths from coronary heart disease, which includes heart attacks, fell to 16% of male deaths from 22%. In women the figure fell to 10% from 15%.

Improved care means people are more likely to survive heart attacks and more people take statins to prevent them in the first place.

Meanwhile, dementia rose to 6% of male deaths from 2% and to 12% of female deaths from 5%.

The latest data is the second consecutive year that dementia has been recorded as the leading cause of death for women.

The ONS report said: “Some of the rise over the last few decades may also be attributable to a better understanding of dementia. This means that doctors may be more likely to record dementia as the underlying cause of death.”